WiZeus > Biography | Education | Scientific | Archive (Demjanjuk, Suslensky, Harasymiw, etc.) >


As explained earlier in the Education link, I was a particularly good student in high school, who enjoyed the hard sciences -- especially physics. Further impetus along this path was  provided by the Internatonal Geophysical Year of 1957 highlighting collaborative  research in the Earth Sciences between East and West. The launching of the Soviet Sputnik on 04Oct1957 followed by many other Soviet and American satellites drew our attention to the skies. The amazingly clear night skies in the rural Crystal Springs area made it easy to spot and follow the satellites circling the earth amongst the millions of dazzling stars in the Milky Way. Every  autumn, we would be treated to the perpetually shifting green curtains (sometimes red) of the Aurora Borealis. In addition, we were always looking for UFOs, which people in the area claimed to have seen.

[A]   B.E. (Eng. Sc. Phys.) (September 1959 -- April 1963)
Also in 1956, my brother, Harry, and his classmate and neighbour, Herb Welch, chose Engineering at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon. Joe Borsa from the neighbouring village of Yellow Creek was taking Engineering Physics. Thus, I naturally followed in their footsteps, when I started university in Saskatoon in the fall of 1959. During the summers of 1960 and 1961, I surveyed grid roads in Saskatchewan to make enough money to pay for my unversity education. In 1962, however, I landed a summer job with the National Research Council in Ottawa. The project, headed by Dr. Ed Jull and technician Ernie Deloli, involved calibrating a large microwave antenna mounted on a 50 foot tower in the 3,000 to 13,500 MHz frequency bands. It was destined to be used to calibrate the 150 foot diameter dish to be built at Algonquin Park, Ontario in 1963. This project eventually led to my B.E. (Eng. Sc. Phys.) thesis titled Measurement of the Gain of a Horn Reflector Antenna . (This link just gives the title page and synopsis, but does give a reference to a scientific paper by Jull and Deloli at IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation AP-12, 439 (1964))

[B]   M.Sc. (Plasma Physics) (April 1963 -- April 1965)
By the time I graduated in the spring of 1963, I had become familiar with controlled thermonuclear fusion and the competition between the Stellarator (a figure 8 configuration championed in England and the United States) versus the toroidal Tokamak (championed in Moscow and Kharkiv, Ukraine). Consequently, I was pleased to enter a Master of Science program in Plasma Physics under Harvey Skarsgard and work alongside his Ph.D. student Andy Strilchuk. My M.Sc. thesis was titled Ion Temperatures in the Plasma Betatron Experiment . The Plasma Betatron was a small toroidal (19 cm major radius, 3 cm minor radius) device designed to accelerate electrons within the toriod -- much like a mini-Tokamak. Details of the Plasma Betatron and the overall research effort are given in the scientific publication
Wave-Plasma Interactions involving intense Runaway Electron Streams . (A scanned 4.1 MB pdf file.) This research introduced me to the concept of "possible practical importance of self-focussing relativistic electron streams in toroidal geometry", runaway electrons, wave-plasma instabilities and a host of other phenomena observed in the solar corona and throughout the galaxy.

[C]   Ph.D. (May 1965 -- August 1968)
Immediately after completing my M.Sc. in the spring of 1965, I headed to Vancouver to start my Ph.D. program under the tutelage of Dr. Boye Ahlborn (a recent immigrant from Germany) at the University of British Columbia. "Boye" was young and had very wide interests -- both theoretical and experimental. He was always developing new ideas and proposing experiments. We dabbled with the "red-shift" and performed experiments to develop a prototype pressure detector based on "frustrated internal reflection". At the Institut für Experimentalphysik in Kiel, Germany, Boye had developed an interest in shock waves. Somehow, we latched on to the idea of trying to simulate interstellar shock waves and radiation fronts in a one-dimensional laboratory experiment. Consequently, my Ph.D. "thesis consists of two main sections: a theoretical investigation of steady radiation fronts and an experimental part" with the title Investigation of the Dynamics of Radiation Fronts . (This link only contains the title page, Abstract, and Summary and Conclusions.) Theory indicates that there are five distinct types of radiation fronts ranging from weak R-type, R-critical, M-type, D-critical, weak D-type. In the weak R-type, the ratio of light intensity to gas density is so large and the radiation front propagates so rapidly compared to the speed of sound that there is little opportunity for the gas particles to move. At the other extreme of the weak D-type radiation front, the speed of sound is greater than the speed of the radiation front such that a shock wave detaches and precedes the radiation front. Rarefaction waves (similar to a tsunami) are often associated with these radiation fronts.

The experimental setup consisted of an intense "Bogen" light pulse of some 5 microsecond duration passing through a lithium flouride window into a linear tube filled with oxygen or iodine gas. Measurements indicated that pressure pulses were, indeed, initiated. Computer simulations of the gas flow were performed using the "method of characteristics" and the "method of finite differences".

(1)  Pressure Pulse Detection by Frustrated Internal Reflection, B. Ahlborn and W.W. Zuzak, Rev. Sc. Inst., 38, 194 (1967)
(2)  Experimental Investigation of Radiation Fronts, W.W. Zuzak and B. Ahlborn, Physica, 41, 193 (1969)
(3)  Steady Radiation Fronts Behind Windows, B. Ahlborn and W.W. Zuzak, Can. J. Phys., 47, 1709 (1969)
(4)  Radiation-Induced Shocks in Oxygen, W.W. Zuzak and B. Ahlborn, Can. J. Phys., 47, 2667 (1969)
(5)  Application of Radiation Fronts in Chemical Lasers, W.W. Zuzak (Unpublished draft, 2.0 MB pdf file)

[D]   PDF Kiel (September 1968 -- September 1969)
Having received a National Research Council post-doctoral fellowship in the fall of 1968, I next headed to Boye Ahlborn's alma mater Institut für Experimentalphysik der Universität Kiel in Germany, where I was attached to a shock wave project of Ph.D. student Heinrich Carls. The shock tube consisted of a 7 cm diameter steel tube with a 100 cm driver section pressurized up to 48 atmospheres of hydrogen gas; a scribed aluminum diaphram; and a 350 cm test section filled with krypton at a pressure of 5 Torr. Measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet radiation emitted behind the Mach 12 shocks are reported in a publication
Measurement of the Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation from a Shock Heated Krypton Plasma .

A memorable highlight of my stay in Germany was a camping trip with Heinrich Carls in a Volkswagon through Czechoslovakia, Ukraine (Uzhorod, Lviv, Kyiv, Poltava, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Yalta, Odesa), through Moldova to attend the Ninth International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases in Bucharest, Romania on September 1-6, 1969.

[E]   PDF Manchester (September 1969 -- September 1970)
The second year of my NRC Postdoctoral Fellowship was spent at the Department of Astronony, University of Manchester in England headed by Professors Z. Kopal and F.D. Kahn, which is located some 20 miles north of the Jodrell Bank Observatory. This introduced me to the fields of astrophysics, galactic plasma dynamics and interstellar loop structures, which was the subject of my theoretical investigation titled
Similarity Models of Interstellar Loop Structures  Astronomy and Astrophysics, 15,  95-109 (1971); W. W. Zuzak.
"Similarity Solutions" is a mathematical technique which (under idealized conditions) can be applied to processes occuring at different size and time scales. Thus, an exploding supernova is "similar" to an exploding hydrogen bomb or a stick of dynamite. Conversely, one can apply the technique to an imploding deuterium-tritium pellet as in the laser-driven fusion concept. Presumably, similarity solutions could also be applied to an imploding black hole. In my scientific publication, I applied this technique to the gigantic Loops I and II (North Polar Spur and Cetus Arc) observed in galactic space.

[F]   EPEC Consulting Ltd. (February 1971 -- August 1972)
Upon returning to Canada without a job lined up, I worked as a "Research Consultant for special projects" for my brother, Harry's firm EPEC Consulting Ltd., which at that time had an address 101-8780-106 Street, Edmonton, Alberta. In addition to environmental studies, I did regular surveying if and as required. Four of the projects were:
(1) "An Economic Analysis of the Cooking and Hastings Lakes" -- for the Environmental Conservation Authority, Alberta, May 1971.
(2) "Recreational Component of the General Plan for the City of Wetaskiwin, 1971" -- for the Battle River Regional Planning Commission, Wetaskiwin, Alberta.
(3) "The Forest Resource in Alberta -- An Examination with respect to Conservation, Recreation and the Forest Industry" -- for the Environment Conservation Authority, Alberta, June 1972.
(4) "A Recreation-Tourism Study of Lake Athabasca and Environs" -- for the Peace Athabasca Delta Project, Edmonton, Alberta.

[G]   Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (September 1972 -- December 1977)
By the fall of 1972, I had landed a job with AECL at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0, some 100 km northeast of Winnipeg. (My boyhood and university friend, Joe Borsa and his wife Donna were already there.) As explained in the promotional youtube video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYomtwtaLOE , WNRE was specifically built to test out the Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) concept, where an organic coolant is used in lieu of heavy water. (Contrary to heavy water coolant, the various components of the organic coolant have different boiling points resulting in a "diffuse" boiling point, such that during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) the organic coolant does not "flash" into a vapour. Although more efficient and superior to heavy water coolant, WNRE scientists could not guarantee that the organic coolant would not burst into flames during such accidents. Consequently, the OCR concept was abandoned and Canada opted to commercialize the CANDU reactor, which uses heavy water as both coolant and moderator.)

The United States had just declassified the laser-driven fusion concept, which envisions imploding a deuterium-tritium pellet from all sides with laser radiation, causing the pellet to implode, reach criticality and then explode like a miniature hydrogen bomb. My specific project was to examine the feasibility and advisability of Canada initiating a laser fusion program. Consequently, I joined the Laser Fusion Working Party based mainly at Chalk River, scoured the literature and visited several laboratories in the United States and Canada. However, it wasn't long before we realized that the difficulties of laser fusion were insuperable and recommended that Canada develop a controlled thermonuclear fusion program based on the Tokamak concept instead.

My scientific work at WNRE is listed below:
(1) Fusion (September 1972 -- January 1974)
(a) Evaluation of the various schemes towards thermonuclear fusion and/or electronuclear production of neutrons; consultation with the various centres with expertise in the field of fusion in Canada and the United States; recommendations for AECL involvement in the field.
(b) Member of the Laser Fusion Working Party at AECL which examined the technological feasibility of utilizing laser-driven fusion in a symbiotic fission-fusion reactor. (See CRNL-1039: "Laser Induced Thermonuclear Fusion -- a presentation to the AECL Senior Management Committee, Nov. 01, 1973".)
(c) Did some calculations on the physics of implosions of deuterium pellets when subjected to pressure pulses such as occur when the pellet is symmetrically irradiated with a laser pulse. (See PR-WAS-20: Progress Report Applied Science Division, Oct. 01 -- Dec. 31, 1973)
(d) Participated (on a personal basis) in the Great Plains Project's Committee on Fusion.

(2) Reactor Physics (January 1974 -- May 1975)
Member of the Thorium Utilization Working Party at AECL which examined the feasibility of fuelling CANDU reactors with thorium. Involved with reactor physics calculations in this field. (See CRNL-1141: "Thorium Utilization Working Party Interim Report".)

(3) Thermalhydraulics (May 1975 -- December 1977)
Development of a Reactor Analysis Implicit Algorithm (RAMA) for transient flow-boiling calculations in pipe networks. The governing equations are solved by a computationally fast characteristic finite difference technique. The code RAMA is being developed to simulate blowdown and emergency core cooling during hypothetical loss of coolant accidents in CANDU reactors. (See: (a) TDAI 98 "RAMA: A Characteristic Finite difference code for LOCA Analysis, Part I and Part II" and (b) "On Finite Difference Solutions to the Transient Flow-Boiling Equations".)

[H]   Multi Contracting Services Ltd. (April 1978 -- August 1981)
After a three month break (which I spent at the home of my future wife, Lily), we joined my brother, Moe in the construction industry in the Grande Prairie, Alberta area. The projects I can readily recall are Municipal Office in Eaglesham, Pat Gorman's Autosupply, Silver Crest Motel addition, Ken Moon Building in Beaverlodge, concrete bridge across Bear Creek to Blake Gimmel's residential development, etc.

[I]   College Lecturer (September 1981 -- April 1984)
Because of the deep recession and interest rates approaching 19% resulting in the construction industry becoming paralyzed, I took a job teaching math and physics to first year Engineering students at Grande Prairie Regional College in the 1981/1982 academic year. (The tenured lecturer was on sabbatical leave.) The process was repeated at Okanagan College in Kamloops, BC in 1982/1983 and Kalamalka College in Vernon, BC in 1983/1984.

[J]   Tokamak de Varennes (June 1984 -- October 1996)
INRS-Energie prelude (excitation-transfer)
During the summer of 1983, my colleague and room mate at UBC, Barry Stansfield, visited us in Vernon and proposed that I join him at INRS Energie, a research facility of the University of Quebec located on the South Shore of Montreal between the villages of Ste. Julie and Varennes and within one kilometere of the research facilities of Hydro Quebec (IREQ), where the Tokamak de Varennes was being built. Naturally, I jumped at the opportunity to work in my scientific field. However, when I arrived in June 1984, the Tokamak was still under construction such that I had the opportunity to do research at INRS on laser-induced fluorescence. This led to a hand-written draft of an INRS-Energie internal report titled "Excitation Transfer in Helium in a Hollow Cathode Discharge via Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (120 pages, 5 Appendices, 30 figures), which was never completed. For archival purposes I have typed out the title page, preamble, introduction and leave the rest to the imagination.

Photography diagnostic (URG phenomenon)
When TdeV finally became operational, I was in charge of the photography diagnostic, which essentially consisted of a b/w and a color "television" camera looking through windows at the plasma during the Tokamak discharge. Although there was some flexibility in the viewing direction, we normally looked tangentially upstream to the electron drift. On 08Oct1987 shot #1396,  a mysterious white glow appeared on eleven video fields of the b/w camera and then disappeared. The phenomenon was repeated on shots #1397 and #1402. Since it reminded us of a UFO, we eventually called it an Unidentified Red Glow (URG). We quickly realized that this radiation was associated with runaway electrons when the pressure in the tokamak vacuum vessel was very low and confirmed the phenomenon with the color camera as illustrated in this illustration. (For me, it was full circle back to the runaway electrons in the Plasma Betatron -- the subject of my M.Sc. thesis at U. of Saskatchewan.)

Of course, I was eager to study every aspect of the URG phenomenon and looked forward to "failed" shots that resulted in runaway electrons and URG emission. I even proposed that some time and some shots be alloted to deliberately produce URG emission. However, the Tokamak operators were very loathe to deviate from their scheduled program. Consequently, URGs were only observed sporadically during certain "failed" shots. Worse, the operators eventually instituted a safety mechanism to abort the shot if and when hard X-rays (always associated with runaway electrons and URG emission) started to appear. Consequently, there were no more URGs to observe. Only once did Guenther Pacher relent, turn off the abort mechanism and schedule a series of shots to deliberately produce URGs (The last URG observed was shot #5519). Nevertheless, I collected enough data to produce  an internal report URG emission from the Tokamak de Varennes CCFM RI 375e, April 1992; W.W. Zuzak et al. (The text is an html file and the 20 illustrations are pdf files.)

There are some intriguing similarities with the mechanisms observed in the Plasma Betatron and the sharp discontinuity at the "critical density"  INT3(crit.) = 0.95xl019 m-3 at which the URG emission is a maximum as illustrated in Fig. 4 of our CCFM internal report. In TdeV the ratio of the "plasma frequency" to the "cyclotron frequency", ωpece = 0.57 at this critical density.

In my opinion, the TdeV should have and operators of Tokamaks around the world should seriously study runaway electrons and their disruption by wave-plasma instabilities. At highly relativistic speeds, the collision cross-sections of the runaway electrons with the surrounding plasma become very small. Consequently, the runaway electron stream and the magnetic field it produces are "de-coupled" from the toroidal magnetic field of the Tokamak and from the main plasma and its magnetic field. This could/should lead to better control of Tokamak discharges. Although synchrotron or bremsstrahlung radiation from the runaway electrons, because of the circular curvature of their trajectory, could be a factor, one can envision experiments specifically designed for the linear portions of the huge ion or electron accelerators such as CERN. Once the human species fully understands  the plasma mechanisms occurring in interstellar and galactic space and applies this knowledge to technological developments here on earth, then the stars will truly be within mankind's reach.

Test Limiter (TiC and boron coatings)
The idea of the test limiter on TdeV was to vertically insert a 7.0 cm diameter hemishpherical zirconium-base ball into the top edge of the Tokamak plasma to study the heat deposition onto its surface. In addition to the thermocouples and other diagnostics, the interaction could be monitored with the TV cameras. For this purpose a large structure (some 2 m in height and 200 kg in weight -- overdesigned, in my opinion) was built and situated in Bay 2 with the help of an overhead crane.

The results of experiments with titanium carbide (TiC) coatings are described in Enhanced resistance of plasma-sprayed TiC coatings to thermal shocks  J. Nuclear Materials 191-194 (1992) 465-468. (2 papers, scanned 9 pages, 4.8 MB pdf file.)

The next series of experiments involved boron coatings on the test limiter to facilitate "boronization" of the Tokamak. The boron sputtered from the test limiter is simply deposited on the inside surfaces of the TdeV vacuum vessel. Some details of the boronization process are available at
Solid target boronization in the Tokamak de Varennes: a technique for real-time boronization  Nucl. Fusion 32, 2029 (1992), Y. Hirooka ... W. Zuzak et al  (title, reference and abstract only).
Unfortunately, the Tokamak operators needed vertical Bay 2 for a different experiment and unilaterally decided to move the test limiter to a different Bay without proper analysis. It turned out that there was an physical obstruction near the very top, such that it proved impossible to re-install the test limiter structure. The boronization and other test limiter experiments came to a screeching halt.

Demise of the Tokamak de Varennes (1987 -- 1999)
The TdeV annual operating costs of $14.2 million were equally shared by the Federal  government (via AECL) and the Quebec provincial government (via IREQ operated by Hydro Quebec). In 1996, the Federal government indicated that it wanted to terminate the arrangement. I distinctly recall Real Decoste (one of the TdeV representatives at the negotiations) bitterly complaining about the negative attitude of Anne McLellan (Minister of Industry at that time) toward the TdeV and scientific research, in general. By 1997, the Federal government was only providing interim financing and the TdeV research programme was being wound down ands permanently closed in 1999. At one time, Canadian scientists had hoped that Canada's involvement in fusion would lead to the the construction of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Ontario, Canada as a compromise between the competing Russians, Europeans, Americans and Japanese. It is now being built in Cadarache, France. Although the construction costs of TdeV were over $100 million, its components were sold to Iran for less tha $10 million.

On 28Nov1991, my wife, Lily, had been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary on her neck. Because of her deteriorating condition, I took a leave of absence on 04Oct1996, officially resigned by 30Jun1997 and returned only to wind up my affairs and sell my house after Lily's death on 15Sep1997. When I completed my Ph.D. at UBC in 1968, I had felt confident that controlled thermonuclear fusion would be a reality within 20 years. I was obviously wrong.

In addition to my research outlined above, there are several more ideas and views that I would like to archive as listed below.

Angular motion vs. linear motion
When I was teaching at Kalamalka College in Vernon, BC, I was impressed by a short scientific article by a local author that someone gave me. (I have not been able to locate it among the many boxes in my basement.) The author argued that in a 4-dimensional world there are no such things as straight lines, linear motion or linear momentum. He noted that all the elementary particles have closed circular spins associated with them. He postulated that all the laws of physics could/should be formulated in terms of angular quantities. Although his postulate may not be correct, it was certainly one of the most original ideas that I have come across.

Big Bang Theory
Many people believe that the universe was created as a "big bang"  many billions of years ago and that the universe has been expanding ever since. They argue that the consistent red-shifts of the radiation emitted by far-off galaxies indicate that they are receding from us. Since my Ph.D. days at UBC, I have argued that it is just as likely that all the galaxies (including our own galaxy) are accelerating into a "black hole" discontinuity. Objects between us and the black hole would appear to be receding from us. Similarly, in the opposite direction, objects would also appear to be receding from us, since our galaxy is accelerating into the black hole more rapidly than these further-away galaxies.

Mag-Lev train between Calgary and Edmonton utilizing superconductivity
A high-speed commuter train between Calgary and Edmonton with a stop-over in Red Deer should soon be economically feasible. Magnetic levitation, as well as energy storage in superconducting coils, could be utilized.

Soundless Mach 10 aircraft
With a proper understanding and application of radiation fronts, it should be possible to suppress shock waves associated with aircraft breaking the sound barrier. Laser beams, electron beams and/or ion beams emitted from the nose of the aircraft would be required.

Farming on the Canadian Shield
Prepare a reasonably-smooth, impermeable, appropriately-sloped rock base with a catch basin at the bottom. Haul in and spread appropriate soil (element-enhanced clay and fertilized black soil) on the rock base.  Plant appropriate crops. Irrigate and recycle the water run-off.

Publish or Perish Syndrome
In my opinion, the pressure on university academics to publish their findings in scientific journals has been counter-productive. "Publish or Perish" encourages researchers to become charlatans rather than scientists. Too many papers are being published prematurely. Inaccurate findings, either deliberately distorted or a product of wishful thinking, are presented as if they were facts. Similarly, the drive to be "first" to publish a  breakthrough in some field is just ego-tripping. All scientific and technological progress is based on the existing educational and technological infrastructure -- not upon the name of some individual. On the other hand, the recent policy of encouragement of university and institutional researchers to seek corporate sponsors to develop and commercialize the results of their research is a positive development, in my opinion.

-- to be continued --

[L]   List of files in "scientific" directory

[1]  Measurement of the Gain of a Horn Reflector Antenna  B.E (Eng. Sc. Phys.) thesis, University of Saskatchewan (April, 1963); William W. Zuzak
[USask1963HornAntenna.html = retyped title page and synopsis only + reference to scientific paper]

[2]  Ion Temperatures in the Plasma Betatron Experiment  M.Sc. thesis, University of Saskatchewan (April, 1965); William W. Zuzak

[3]  Wave-Plasma Interactions involving intense Runaway Electron Streams Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, Vol. 11 (Beograd 1966), H. M. Skarsgard, A. R. Strilchuk and W. W. Zuzak
[USask1965Betatron.pdf = scanned 6 page, 4.1 MB pdf file]

[4]  Investigation of the Dynamics of Radiation Fronts  Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia (August 1968); William W. Zuzak
[UBC1968thesis.html = retyped title page and abstract only, 4 KB html file]

[5] Application of Radiation Fronts in Chemical Lasers  Unpublished Draft, W.W. Zuzak
[UBC1969RadiationFronts.pdf = scanned 4 page, 2.0 MB pdf file]

[6]  Measurement of the Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation from a Shock Heated Krypton Plasma  J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer Vol. 11, pp. 1135-1141 (1971); H. H. Carls and W. W. Zuzak
[Kiel1970KryptonShocks.html = retyped title page and abstract only, 3 KB html file]

[7]  Similarity Models of Interstellar Loop Structures  Astronomy and Astrophysics, 15,  95-109 (1971); W. W. Zuzak
[Manchester1971LoopStructures.html = retyped title page and abstract only, 3 KB html file]

[8] Excitation Transfer in Helium in a Hollow Cathode Discharge via Laser-Induced Fluorescence  INRS-Energie Internal Report (May 1986), W.W. Zuzak
[INRS1986LIF.html = typed title page, preamble and abstract only, 3 KB html file]

[9]  URG emission from the Tokamak de Varennes CCFM RI 375e, April 1992; W.W. Zuzak et al
[TdeV-URG.html + TdeV-URG31.pdf ... TdeV-URG50.pdf = OCRed text, 97 KB html file + 20 scanned illustrations, 4.3 MB pdf files]

[10]  Enhanced resistance of plasma-sprayed TiC coatings to thermal shocks  J. Nuclear Materials 191-194 (1992) 465-468, R.G. Saint-Jacques, F. Bordeaux, B. Stansfield, G. Veilleux, W.W. Zuzak, A. Lakhsasi, C. Boucher
[TdeV-TiC.pdf = 2 papers, scanned 9 pages, 4.8 MB pdf file]

[11] Solid target boronization in the Tokamak de Varennes: a technique for real-time boronization  Nucl. Fusion 32, 2029 (1992), Y. Hirooka, C. Boucher, R.W. Conn, P. Couture, B.C. Gregory, M. Khandagle, E. Knystautas, T. Matsuda, R.W. Paynter, G.G. Ross, T. Sogabe, B.L. Stansfield and W. Zuzak
[TdedV-Boron.html = title, reference and abstract only, 2 KB html file]