EMPR | 17Aug2017 | Maria Nesheva
In 12th century the land
mentioned as Ukraine. Russia does not exist
For the first
time Ukraine was mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle. Not Little
Rus’ or something else, but Ukraine. Nobody heard about Moscow
and Russia at that time. Learn more impressive historical facts.
[W.Z. I have
made a few minor grammatical corrections in the text below. Secondly,
verifying the veracity of the material in the text and the links are
far beyond my competence and capability. Each reader should check out
these links for him/herself. Finally, over the centuries Ukrainians
have been under the domination of various empires (Lithuanian, Polish,
Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, etc.) and were thus obliged to
interact, inter-marry, integrate, etc. with all the ethnic groups with
whom they made contact. In my opinion, a pure Ukrainian, Russian,
Polish, etc. ethnicity is impossible to define.]
The Chronicle includes several components: Lavrentian Chronicle, the Tale of Bygone Years, Chernihiv,
Kyiv, Galician–Volhynian Chronicles
which described the events from 860’s to 1292’s. Sources of the
chronicles are diverse: Palatine chroniclers, palatine letters,
ambassadors’ reports, military tales, stories of bystanders, the Greek
chronicles and so on.
Ukraine is mentioned for the first time in the Tale of Igor’s Campaign against Polovtsy
Many sources identify Kyivan Rus' with Ukraine. In some
versions, such as Ermolaevsky list (1189-1213 years), Ukraine is called
Krajina (country), in Kyiv chronicles -- Galich Ukraina.
Also, the name ‘Ukraine’ is mentioned in connection with the
death of Pereyaslav Knyaz Volodymyr Glebovich, later in the description
of events during Galician-Volyn Knyaz Danylo Romanovych regiment.
Something like that.
What historical data will help to clarify
Ukraine and Russia backgrounds?
Higher education institutions: the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded in 1724, Moscow University in 1755. Ostroh Academy was founded in 1576 in
Ukraine, the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was
established in 1615 and Lviv University in 1661.
First printed ABC book
in Ukraine was published in 1574 in Lviv, and in the Tsardom
of Russia it happened 60 years later in 1634.
Religion: Kyiv Metropolia was founded in the year 988,
and Moscow Patriarchate only
in 1458. Kyiv Metropolia is 460 years older than Moscow ones.
is one among the oldest cities in Europe and was founded in 482,
while Moscow was founded in 1147 by
Yuriy Dolgoruky, the son of Volodymyr Monomakh. So, Kyiv is older than
Moscow by 665 years.
The first monarch who was
crowned in the Tsardom of Russia was Ivan the Terrible in 1547, and in
Ukrainian lands it was the first king of Rus’ Daniel of Galicia in
Mongol yoke: Kyiv lost the
Mongolian yoke in 1363 after the Battle of Blue Waters; Moscow
lost yoke in 1480 after great standoff on the Ugra river,
and Muscovy paid tribute to the Crimean khan till 1700, including the
first years of Peter the Great reign.
Name: For the first time, the
term ‘Ukraine’ was found in the chronicles in the year 1187. Term
‘Russia’ was found only during the reign of Ivan the Terrible 400 years
Last, but not the least, famous Ukrainian Pylyp Orlyk is the
author of one of the first constitutions in the world.
On April 5th, 1710 he was elected as a hetman. On the same day
he announced a ‘Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and
Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host’. Worth mention, that the U.S. constitution was adopted
in 1787. In France and Poland it was adopted in 1791.
What historical facts you should know on
Ukraine and Russia origins?
1. A state called Muscovy was renamed as Russia by Peter the Great
in the 18th century -- in 1721.
[edited by W.Z.; actually renamed as the Russian Empire.]
2. The tribe called Mokshas named their river Moskva, and the
translation of the title from the Moksha language sounds like ‘dirty
water’. In any other languages of the world there is no translation for
the word ‘Moscow’. The word ‘Kremlin’ has Tatar roots and stands for
fortifications on the hill.
3. In the Middle Ages all European cartographers wrote and
marked the frontier of Europe along the borders of Rus' (Rus' is a
territory of present-day Ukraine). Muscovy is Ulus, with its Finnish
people, has always been a part of the Horde, and was referred to Asia
4. Muscovy (Russia) paid tribute to the Crimean Khan, its
sovereign ruler and master, who was the legal successor of the Golden
Horde, until 1700. Tsar of Muscovy met Crimean ambassador on Poklonnaya
Hill, put him onto the horseback, walked on foot himself leading the
horse with the Crimean ambassador to the Kremlin, put him on his
throne, and stood up in front of him on his knees.
5. In 1610, in Muscovy Borys Godunov (Murza Gudun) ended the
Genghisids dynasty (Genghis Khan’s relative), and Olexiy Koshka from
the Finnish family of Kobyliny was enthroned, and the church gave him
the surname Romanov, who allegedly came from Rome to rule Muscovy.
6. Catherine the Great, after the occupation of Grand Duchy
of Lithuania (territory of Belarus), the last free state of Kyiv Rus’,
in 1795, ordered to name Finno-Ugric tribes of Muscovy Great Russians,
and Ukrainians (true Rus' citizens) -- Little Russians.
7. No one has ever seen the original agreement on the
reunification between Muscovy and Ukraine, allegedly signed by B.
Khmelnitsky and Tzar A. Romanov.
8. For several centuries, archaeologists have been looking
for artifacts, confirming the authenticity of the Battle of Kulikovo,
but so far without success. But they pitch a yarn about the
victory of Dmitry Donskoi over Mamai until now.
9. Pskov, Novgorod, Smolensk regions of Russia are former
Slavo-Ruthenian Principalities, and Finno-Ugric Muscovy had nothing to
do with this, until Muscovy-Horde occupied them in 1462, in 1478 and in
the 1654. And in other areas of Russia (Muscovy) Slavic tribes and
peoples have never lived.
10. Golden Horde and her daughter Muscovy are the only
countries in the world that enslaved their own people. This explains
why rich in natural resources Muscovy falls behind the European
countries with lack in natural resources. After all, the
effectiveness of the free people is much higher than the slaves.
[... map ...]
The myths of the Russian national consciousness suffered a
new blow! First, the study of the gene pool of the Russian people,
conducted by Russian scientists in 2000-2006 showed that genetically
Russian are not Slavs, but true-born Finns, that have no difference
According to the information from the
Moscow-based Center of Lev Gumilyov, Russian scientists for
the first time in history conducted Russian gene pool research and were
shocked by the results! These studies also fully confirmed that the
Russians are not Slavs, but only Russian-speaking Finns. Results of the
mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that another Russian nearest
relatives, except the Finns from Finland are Tatars: Russians are on
the same genetic distance of 30 conventional units from the Tartars,
which separate them from the Finns! Russian scientists ended the issue
concerning myth of the ‘Slavic roots of Russians’: there is nothing
from Slavs in Russians! There is only Slavic Russian language, but it
has 60-70% of non-Slavic language, so Russian people are not able to
understand the language of the Slavs, although the true Slav
understands any language because of the similarity of Slavic languages
(except Russian). There are Russians in Russia, but not Rus'. There
always was and will be only Kyivan Rus' !
Maria Nesheva contributed
to this publication.
This article is prepared with the use of materials
available on Volodymyr Prokopenko’s FB and
voronz.in.ua. Cover image
credits to goodpublications.